[McHam, 1989, pp. Martin himself suggested instead that Cossa be identified as a Neapolitan cardinal, thus emphasizing instead his submission. ], Above the Virtues, four classical consoles decorated with acanthus leaves support the sarcophagus. Such a motif is unprecedented in Tuscan funerary sculpture but found at this date in Venice, Padua, [Janson, 1963, p. Ed. A life-size marble effigy lying on top of an elevated protruding sarcophagus is highly typical. PAGES . 1928). [Lightbown, 1980, p. IOAN"n"ES QVO"n"DAM PAPA"—because he thought it implied Cossa had died as pope (the Latin " _la. At the time of their partnership, Donatello was already well-known for his statues of prophets and saints for the Duomo and Orsanmichele, while Michelozzo was more obscure. However, Lightbown [Lightbown, 1980, pp. 4–5.] It was commissioned by the executors of Cossa's will after his death on December 22, 1419 and completed during the 1420s, establishing it as one of the early landmarks of Renaissance Florence. Box Number. The central figure of Charity is the most antique, assimilating elements of Classical depictions of Abundantia, Ceres, and Juno, all of which were depicted with cornucopias in their left hands. Tomb of Antipope John XXIII: lt;p|>The |Tomb of Antipope John XXIII| is the |marble|-and-bronze |tomb| |monument| of |Antipope... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled. Thank you for helping build the largest language community on the internet. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Baldassarre Cossa (c. 1370 – 22 December 1419) was Pisan antipope John XXIII (1410–1415) during the Western Schism. 37.] He should not be confused with Pope John XXIIIof the twentieth century. 27.] pp. ], *Avery, Charles. Tomb of Antipope John XXIII is a featured article; it (or a previous version of it) has been identified as one of the best articles produced by the Wikipedia community.Even so, if you can update or improve it, please do so. "Death and Ritual in Renaissance Florence". "Donatello’s Tomb of Pope John XXIII". 134. The Tomb of Antipope John XXIII is the marble-and-bronze tomb monument of Antipope John XXIII (Baldassare Cossa, c. 1360–1419), created by Donatello and Michelozzo for the Florence Baptistry adjacent to the Duomo. Cossa had a long history of cooperation with Florence, which had viewed him as the legitimate pontiff for a time during the Western Schism. Cart All. [Lightbown, 1980, p. He should not be confused with Pope John XXIII of the twentieth century. Tomb of Antipope John XXIII The Tomb of Antipope John XXIII is the marble-and-bronze tomb monument of Antipope John XXIII (Baldassare Cossa, c. 1360–1419), created by Donatello and Michelozzo for the Florence Baptistry adjacent to the Duomo. ], The convert|1.05|m|ft|2|sing=on tall Faith, to the right of Charity, is holding a Eucharistic chalice; the convert|1.07|m|ft|2|sing=on tall Charity is holding a cornucopia and a brazier (or flaming vase); and the convert|1.06|m|ft|2|sing=on tall Hope, to the left of Charity, has hands clasped in prayer. Monument created by collaboration of Donatello and Michelozzo and finished in the 1420's. 121.] [Lightbown, 1980, p. 36–39.] The tomb monument is often interpreted as an attempt to strengthen the legitimacy of Cossa's pontificate by linking him to the spiritually powerful site of the Baptistry. Also, he had two brothers. Antipope John XXIII was born in the year 1370 on the island of Procida, Kingdom of Naples. ], The commissioning of Cossa's tomb monument was negotiated for about a decade following Cossa's death. "Donatello". Photographer. ], Above the pylon, separated by the cornice, are the three Virtues—from left to right, Faith, Charity, and Hope—in shell niches, separated by four Corinthian fluted pilasters. 20. quondam" could mean either "the former" or the "the late"). He received a temporary burial until the tomb was complete. The Cossa monument is often compared to the monument to Doge Tommaso Mocenigo of Venice, of 1423, which has high relief saints in shell niches on and above the sarcophagus, above which a large pair of curtains sweep up to a single terminal; however the architectural detailing here is Gothic. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. ISBN 0714828246*Strocchia, Sharon T. 1992. According to Janson, of the marble work, only the "putti" can be attributed to "Donatello’s own hand". [Lightbown, 1980, pp. It was one of the early landmarks in Renaissance Florence. 44.] ], Behind the effigy is a convert|1.34|m|ft|2|sing=on tripartite pylon with sunk molded borders supporting the cornice and framed by two additional Corinthian pilasters. although others contend that the sketch is too inaccurate. ], The Calimala's acquiescence is traditionally explained by Cossa's donation of the relic of the right index finger of John the Baptist (and 200 florins for an appropriate reliquary) to the Baptistry. 64. [Caplow, 1977, p. Contemporary sources report that the Signoria mimicked the reply of Pontius Pilate regarding the inscription on the cross of Christ: "What is written, is written." [McHam, 1989, pp. Above the effigy and Madonna is a gilt-edged architectonic canopy decorated with patterned stemmed flowers, giving the conceit of being supported by the ribbed brass ring, an impossibility given its weight. This article appeared on Wikipedia's Main Page as Today's featured article on April 6, 2008. [Caplow, 1977, p. [Caplow, 1977, pp. ], Some scholars suggest that Donatello created the effigy with the aid of a death mask, [Lightbown, 1980, p. 44; Grassi, 1965, p. "The Sculpture of Donatello". The tomb monument was the first of several collaborations between Donatello and Michelozzo, and the attribution of its various elements to each of them has been debated by art historians, as have the interpretations of its design and iconography. Nearly every element of the tomb monument has been attributed to both Donatello and Michelozzo by different art historians. The pylon is convert|1.39|m|ft|2 high and convert|2.02|m|ft|2 wide, decorated with a frieze of winged angel heads (perhaps seraphim) and garlands and ribbons. [Lightbown, 1980, p. Antipope John XXIII had a complicated life, legacy, and relationship with Florence. Donatello also produced two similar bronze Virtues for the Siena Baptistry, whose chronological relationship to the Cossa Virtues is unclear. Antipope John XXIII — John XXIII † Catholic Encyclopedia John XXIII Antipope of the Pisan party (1400 15), b. about 1370; d. 22 November, 1419. [Caplow, 1977, pp. 1992. Antipope of the Pisan party (1400-15), b ... Sigismund invited Popes Gregory XII and Benedict XIII and all Christendom to attend, and prevailed on John XXIII, with whom he had a meeting at Lodi towards the end of November, to issue the Convocation Bull (9 December, 1413) of the general council to be opened at Constance on 1 November, 1414. 135.] [Lightbown, 1980, pp. The evocation of papal symbolism on the tomb and the linkage between Cossa and Florence have been interpreted as a snub to Cossa's successor Pope Martin V or vicarious "Medici self-promotion", as such a tomb would have been deemed unacceptable for a Florentine citizen. Florence was loyal to him during the "Western Schism" and he died in Florence. With this finger John was believed to have pointed to Jesus, saying "Ecce Agnus Dei" ("Behold the lamb of God") in from the Baptistry wall. 154–5; Strocchia, 1992, p. 138; Lightbown, 1980, p. The monument was built as a tomb for the Baldassare Cossa as his memorial. 46. The tomb monument's design included figures of the three Virtues in niches, Cossa's family arms, a gilded bronze recumbent effigy laid out above an inscription-bearing sarcophagus supported on corbel brackets, and above it a Madonna and Child in a half-lunette, with a canopy over all. further strengthening the papal associations, which were created by dating Cossa’s death using the ancient Roman Kalends of January, which was uncommon on Florentine tombs, but was used in papal ones. [McHam, 1989, pp. [Lightbown, 1980, p. 16.] and are also seen as supports on earlier tombs, such as that of Lapo de’ Bardi (d. 1342) in the Bargello. [Lightbown, 1980, p. Is this me?”—Stanley Kubrick (b. 1904. 5–6. [Levey, 1996, pp. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ], On top of the sarcophagus, the bier of the effigy is supported by lions whose shape mimics Trecento consoles. 15–19 and 183–186.] "All the Sculpture of Donatello". At the beginning of his youth, he took up a military career. 18.] [Janson, 1963, p. 59; Caplow, 1977, p. [Janson, 1963, p. 50.] The fact that there were more popes named John than of any other name during the first 1400 years of the Church and then no more for over 500 years is probably due to the controversial figure this antipope … It was commissioned by the executors of Cossa's will after his death on December 22, 1419 and completed during the 1420s, establishing it as one of the early landmarks of Renaissance Florence. 149.] the only known example of a two-dimensional papal monument, [Panofsky, 1964, p. 9. 19.] … "Donatello & Michelozzo". ISBN 0905203224*McHam, Sarah Blake. (translator). and Donatello [Lightbown, 1980, p. ISBN 9780822308720*Meyer, Alfred Gotthold. [Lightbown, 1980, p. [McHam, 1989, p. The inscription reads: [Lightbown, 1980, p. Baptistery. [Lightbown, 1980, pp. Tomb of Antipope John XXIII. The evocation of papal symbolism on the tomb and the linkage between Cossa and Florence have been interpreted as a snub to Cossa's successor Pope Martin V [Lightbown, 1980, p. 16l] [Caplow, 1977, p. 62.] [Lightbown, 1980, pp. [Lightbown, 1980, pp. 64.] 138.] Find the travel option that best suits you. ], The executors claimed that Cossa had revealed his desire for burial in the Baptistry to them but had been too modest to request it in his will. Christopher, who was regarded as a legitimate pope until the 19th century, was buried among the papal tombs in Old St. Peter's Basilica. 139.] Italian Gothic sculpture always retained considerable elements of classicism, and it was not necessary for Donatello and Michelozzo to adopt a radically original overall scheme from those of Tino di Camaino (c. 1285–1337), the Siennese sculptor whose wall-tombs of a century before had been very influential throughout Italy. 159.] The entire wiki with photo and video galleries for each article ], The bier and the pall spread over it are tilted towards the viewer with the lion supporting the head standing convert|2|cm|in|0|sing=on shorter, increasing the visibility of the effigy, especially the head. This article is about the sculptures by Donatello, for other uses see David (disambiguation). 1419, 11days before the Calends of JanuaryPope Martin V objected to a portion of the inscription—" _la. Martin V himself was buried underneath an undecorated bronze floor slab, [McHam, 1989, p. The putti (or spiratelli) share many characteristics with their ancient counterparts, except for their crossed legs. Sign in to disable ALL ads. New York: Hawthorn Books, Inc. OCLC 1039596*Janson, H.W. [McHam, 1989, p. The "rilievo schiacciato" (a type of very shallow bas-relief pioneered by Donatello) on the architrave sarcophagus (convert|2.12|m|ft|2|sing=on wide and convert|0.7|m|ft|2|sing=on high) depicts two putti or spiratelli ("little spirits") holding open a large inscribed parchment, perhaps in the style of a papal brief. Physical Dimension. New York: IconEditions. [McHam, 1989, p. 156; Strocchia, 1992, p. As John XXIII tried to make his way towards the territory of John II, Duke of Burgundy, Frederick IV surrendered him to the custody of Sigismund and the Council, and he was imprisoned by Louis III. Tomb of Antipope John XXIII. [Lightbown, 1980, p. The bequests to his nephews took priority, and his estate remained disputed by various creditors while the tomb was being completed. 61.] [Janson, 1963, p. McHam [McHam, 1989, p. Read more about Tomb Of Antipope John XXIII:  Antipope John XXIII, Commissioning, Completion, Design, Attribution, “A best-seller is the gilded tomb of a mediocre talent.”—Logan Pearsall Smith (1865–1946), ““But thou, O King, I bid remember me, unwept, unburied,“Heap up mine arms, be tomb by sea-bord, and inscribed:“A man of no fortune, and with a name to come.”—Ezra Pound (1885–1972), “Is that you, John Wayne? 42. 1. 159.] Besides underscoring the antiquity of the tomb monument, the main purpose of the tall yet poorly finished Virtues is to put additional vertical distance between the viewer and the effigy, which has the cumulative effect of de-emphasizing the peculiarities of Cossa, in favor of a generic pontiff (i.e. The tomb monument was the first of several collaborations between Donatello and Michelozzo, and the attribution of its various elements to each of them has been debated by art historians, as have the interpretations of its design and iconography. 1964. 62.] [DSCN0757a] 22. 1989. ( [http://books.google.com/books?id=wXoAAAAAYAAJ&dq=&sa=X&oi=print&ct=book-ref-page-link Available online] )*Pope-Hennessy, John, 1986 (revised ed. The gilded-bronze, life-size effigy itself makes no attempt to argue for Cossa’s papal status, dressing Cossa clearly in the costume of a cardinal; [Lightbown, 1980, p. 43; McHam, 1989, p. The Tomb of Antipope John XXIII is the marble and bronze tomb monument of Antipope John XXIII (Baldassare Cossa, c. 1360–1419), created by Donatello and Michelozzo for the Florence Baptistry adjacent to the Duomo. David is the name of two statues by Italian early… …   Wikipedia, Michelozzo — Birth name Michelozzo di Bartolomeo Michelozzi Born c. 1396 Florence, Italy …   Wikipedia, Recumbent effigy — Infobox musical artist Name = Recumbent Effigy Sculpture in East Hampton, New York Img capt = The tomb of Lion Gardiner in East Hampton (village), New York depicts him in the classic recumbent effigy pose. The opening in the 16th century of the sarcophagus confirmed that Cossa’s actual burial clothes matched the effigy. 37. although the notes of Senatore Carlo Strozzi, who went through the records, are extant. Donatello’s alleged deficiencies in casting or in architecture have been proposed as the reason for his partnership with Michelozzo, [Janson, 1963, pp. 155–6.] Robert Langdon, the main character in Dan Brown’s Inferno, in describing the Baptistry of Florence was attracted to the suspended tomb of Antipope Giovanni XXIII (John XXIII). ], In Florence, Cossa submitted to Martin V on June 14, 1419 and was rewarded with a cardinal's hat on June 26, only to die on December 22. Although he expected his departure would disperse the council, the members of which he called to join him under the protection of Frederick IV, Duke of Austria, it continued to operate where they were. Sigismund wanted to end the schism and urged John to call a general council. 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